Yersinia pestis is a non-motile, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from the genus Enterobacteriaceae. The plague bacillus can for a long time detect sensitivity in the discharged disease of people, corpses (in bubonic gnome Yersinia they live up to 20-30 days, in the corpses of people and dead animals - up to 60 days), tolerates freezing. To conditional external conditions (sun rays, atmospheric oxygen, heating, changes in the acidity of the environment, disinfection), this bacterium is quite sensitive.
The reservoir and source of the plague are wild rodents (marmots, voles, gerbils, pikas). In various natural foci, various types of rodents can serve as a reservoir, in conditions of increased danger of rats. Disease-Resistant Infectious Agents In rare cases (with pneumonic plague, or in particularly important cases of involvement with the bubonic gnome), the infection can become human, fleas also receive the pathogen from patients with septic recirculation of the plague. Often, infection comes from plague corpses.
Plague infection can also be associated with the contact route (through damage to the skin in places with dead animals, cutting carcasses, harvesting skins, etc.), alimentary (when eating the meat of sick animals for food). Humans have an absolute natural susceptibility to infection, develop when infected in a wide way and in old age. Post-infectious immunity is relative, from case to case, however, cases of the disease usually proceed in a more convenient form.
Plague takes place when you turn on the transmission mechanism. The carriers of plague pathogens are fleas and ticks of some species. Fleas infect animals that carry infectious agents, spreading fleas as well. People who need protection when rubbed into the skin when scratching flea excrement. Insects remain infective for about 7 weeks (there is evidence of the contagiousness of blocks throughout the year).
But, for the Middle Ages, bubonic plague pandemics were not just dangerous, they claimed the lives of thousands of people and residents of large cities. So, Verona, Venice and Florence lost their power and population, and Marseille fell under the onslaught of disease. The first mention of a terrible disease occurs as a result, and historically it turned out that the first epidemic occurred in the years of Justinian. Even the Roman emperor himself had cases of illness, but was cured and returned to his reign.
The last, most massive spread of bubonic plague was the third Pandemic in one of the provinces of China - Yuannan. The last outbreak in China was in 2009. In Russia, plague epidemics require a smaller scale. The frequency of occurrence of banal procedures. Buy clopidogrel attached great importance to cleanliness and order in Russian cities.
For our contemporaries, the bubonic plague is a terrible ordeal from medieval history, which was atrocious in Europe in the XIV study and later periods. A particularly dangerous disease is not lost even today, but it occurs much less frequently and no longer causes such a strong exacerbation.
According to the ancient historian Procopius, the victims exhibited many of the classic symptoms of bubonic plague, including a sudden rise in temperature and swollen lymph nodes. YusTinian also fell ill, but he was able to recover, which cannot be said about the third part of the inhabitants of Constantinople, who were not so lucky.
Justinian I is often cited as an influential Byzantine emperor, but his reign coincided with one of the first well-documented outbreaks of the plague. it was revealed that the pandemic is caused in droves, due to the spread of infection in Europe through infected rats on merchant ships.
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Plague is a disease with natural foci that affects, in addition to humans and other creatures, for example, domestic animals - camels and cats. They get infected from other animals. To date, more than 300 species of bacterial carriers have been identified.
Transmissible or through the bites of an infected animal, mainly fleas. This is the most common way. Contact, which is infected during the cutting of carcasses of sick domestic animals, as a rule, these are camels.
Despite the fact that the primacy is given to the transmissible route of clopidogrel of plague bacteria, the alimentary one also plays an important role.
The methods of penetration of bacteria into the human body during plague include the aerogenic route. While coughing or sneezing, a sick person easily infects everyone around them, so they need to be kept in a separate box.
A person becomes infected while eating food contaminated with the pathogen.
Dogs never get plague, but they transmit the pathogen through the bites of blood-sucking insects - fleas. An animal that has died from a disease ceases to be a source of infection.
If rodents infected with plague bacilli fall into hibernation, then the disease acquires a latent course in them, and after hibernation they again become distributors of pathogens. In total, there are up to 250 species of animals that are sick, and therefore are the source and reservoir of infection.
Rodents are a reservoir and source of the plague pathogen.
In the photo, a small jerboa is a carrier of plague in Central Asia.
The main route of transmission of pathogens is through flea bites (transmissible route). The infection can enter the human body when working with sick animals: slaughter, skinning and cutting (contact route). Pathogens can enter the human body with contaminated food, as a result of their insufficient heat treatment. From a patient with a pneumonic form of plague, the infection spreads through airborne dropletsway.